Generate Meshes#

FElupe provides a simple mesh generation module felupe.mesh. A felupe.Mesh instance contains essentially two arrays: one with points and another one containing the cell connectivities, called cells. Only a single cell_type is supported per mesh. Optionally the cell_type is specified which is used if the mesh is saved as a VTK or a XDMF file. These cell types are identical to cell types used in meshio (VTK types): line, quad and hexahedron for linear lagrange elements or triangle and tetra for 2- and 3-simplices or VTK_LAGRANGE_HEXAHEDRON for 3d lagrange-cells with polynomial shape functions of arbitrary order.

import numpy as np
import felupe as fem

points = np.array([
    [ 0, 0], # point 1
    [ 1, 0], # point 2
    [ 0, 1], # point 3
    [ 1, 1], # point 4
], dtype=float)

cells = np.array([
    [ 0, 1, 3, 2], # point-connectivity of first cell

mesh = fem.Mesh(points, cells, cell_type="quad")

# view the mesh in an interactive window

# take a screenshot of an off-screen view
img = fem.ViewMesh(mesh).plot(off_screen=True).screenshot(

A cube by hand#

First let’s start with the generation of a line from x=1 to x=3 with n=2 points. Next, the line is expanded into a rectangle. The z argument of felupe.mesh.expand() represents the total expansion. Again, an expansion of our rectangle leads to a hexahedron. Several other useful functions are available beside felupe.mesh.expand(): felupe.mesh.rotate(), felupe.mesh.revolve() and felupe.mesh.sweep(). With these simple tools at hand, rectangles, cubes or cylinders may be constructed with ease.

line = fem.mesh.Line(a=1, b=3, n=7)
rect = fem.mesh.expand(line, n=5, z=5)
cube = fem.mesh.expand(rect, n=6, z=3)

Alternatively, these mesh-related tools are also provided as methods of a felupe.Mesh.

cube = fem.mesh.Line(a=1, b=3, n=7).expand(n=5, z=5).expand(n=6, z=3)

Lines, rectangles, cubes and circles#

Lines, rectangles, cubes and cylinders do not have to be constructed manually each time. Instead, some easier to use classes are povided by FElupe like felupe.mesh.Line, felupe.Rectangle or felupe.Cube. For non equi-distant points per axis use felupe.Grid.

cube = fem.Cube(a=(1, 0, 0), b=(3, 5, 3), n=(7, 5, 6))

There is also felupe.Circle for the creation of a quad-mesh for a circle.

circle = fem.Circle(radius=1.5, centerpoint=[1, 2], n=6, sections=[0, 90, 180, 270])


Cylinders are created by a revolution of a rectangle.

r = 25
R = 50
H = 100

rect = fem.Rectangle(a=(r, 0), b=(R, H), n=(11, 41))
cylinder = rect.revolve(n=19, phi=180, axis=1)

Fill between boundaries#

Meshed boundaries may be used to fill the area or volume in between for line and quad meshes. A plate with a hole is initiated by a line mesh, which is copied two times for the boundaries. The points arrays are updated for the hole and the upper edge. The face is filled by a quad mesh.

n = (11, 9)
phi = np.linspace(1, 0.5, n[0]) * np.pi / 2

line = fem.mesh.Line(n=n[0])
bottom = line.copy(points=0.5 * np.vstack([np.cos(phi), np.sin(phi)]).T)
top = line.copy(
    points=np.vstack([np.linspace(0, 1, n[0]), np.linspace(1, 1, n[0])]).T

face = bottom.fill_between(top, n=n[1])
mesh = fem.mesh.concatenate([face, face.mirror(normal=[-1, 1, 0])]).sweep()

Indentations for rubber-metal parts#

Typical indentations (runouts) of the free-rubber surfaces in rubber-metal components are defined by a centerpoint, an axis and their relative amounts (values) per axis. Optionally, the transformation of the point coordinates is restricted to a list of given points.

block = mesh.expand(z=0.5)
x, y, z = block.points.T

solid = block.add_runouts(
    centerpoint=[0, 0, 0],
    values=[0.07, 0.02],
    exponent=5,  # shape parameter
    mask=np.arange(solid.npoints)[np.sqrt(x**2 + y**2) > 0.5]

Triangle and Tetrahedron meshes#

Any quad or tetrahedron mesh may be subdivided (triangulated) to meshes out of Triangles or Tetrahedrons by felupe.mesh.triangulate().

rectangle = fem.Rectangle(n=5).triangulate()
cube = fem.Cube(n=5).triangulate()
cube = fem.Cube(n=5).triangulate(mode=0)

Meshes with midpoints#

If a mesh with midpoints is required by a region, functions for edge, face and volume midpoint insertions are provided in felupe.mesh.add_midpoints_edges(), felupe.mesh.add_midpoints_faces() and felupe.mesh.add_midpoints_volumes(). A low-order mesh, e.g. a mesh with cell-type quad, can be converted to a quadratic mesh with felupe.mesh.convert(). By default, only midpoints on edges are inserted. Hence, the resulting cell-type is quad8. If midpoints on faces are also calculated, the resulting cell-type is quad9.

rectangle_quad4 = fem.Rectangle(n=6)
rectangle_quad8 = rectangle_quad4.convert(order=2)
rectangle_quad9 = fem.mesh.convert(rectangle_quad4, order=2, calc_midfaces=True)

The same also applies on meshes with triangles.

rectangle_triangle3 = fem.Rectangle(n=6).triangulate()
rectangle_triangle6 = rectangle_triangle3.add_midpoints_edges()

While views on higher-order meshes are possible, it is suggested to use ParaView for the visualization of meshes with midpoints due to the improved representation of the cells.